See Mars Like Never Before! NASA's Perseverance Rover Sends New Video and Images of the Red Planet



welcome to nasa's jet propulsion


in southern california days ago nasa's

most sophisticated and capable rover to


landed on mars the perseverance rover

today we'll see mars like never before

with new photos and videos

our panel today will help us understand

how perseverance captured

what it's like to land on mars and what

the landing site looks like

i'm your host raquel villanueva and

joining us

is matt wallace perseverance deputy

project manager

dave grull perseverance entry descent

and landing camera suite lead

al chen perseverance entry descent and

landing lead

justin mackey perseverance imaging

scientist and

instrument operations team chief

jessica samuels perseverance surface

mission manager

ken williford perseverance deputy

project scientist

and to tell us what this all means for


and exploration thomas zurbukin

associate administrator for nasa's

science mission

directorate we will take questions

during this briefing

if you're a member of the media on the

phone lines

press star one to be put in the queue if

you're on social media

use the hashtag countdown to mars

now to get us started is jpl director

mike watkins now i will step aside for

him to give his opening remarks

thank you welcome back to jpl we have a


press conference today and i was just

looking at uh at the team here i think

we're trying to add it up maybe a


years of combined experience with mars

rovers on the panel today

now we have been working very hard since

we landed

the surface team has been getting the

rover set up for the surface mission

they've been working mars time over the

weekend making fantastic progress

and you'll hear about that today you'll

also see some brand new images and


that we acquired over the weekend are

downlinked over the weekend

and these are really fantastic images of

the surface of mars

and the rest of the descent imagery that

um that we got a preview of

on friday these images

have always been part of the history of

jpl uh you know we have taken

everyone along with us on our journeys

across the solar system through the

rings of saturn

looking back at the pale blue dot and

incredible panoramas on the surface of


this is the first time we've been able

to actually capture

an event like the landing of a

spacecraft on mars

and these are pretty cool videos and we

will learn something

by looking at the performance of the

vehicle in these videos but a lot of it

is also to bring you along

uh on our journey our touchdown to mars

and of course

our surface mission as well and uh these

are really amazing videos

uh we all binge watched them over the


if you can call a one minute video binge

watching but uh

but we watched it many many times and

it's really fantastic

and just to show you how far we've come

in history of jpl

i want to show one image this is from

mariner 4

in 1965. so this was actually

the first data first images sent back

from mars by mariner 4

and that was hand colored by the

engineers according to a code

kind of like a paint by numbers uh uh


and that's there it is the first color

color image hand painted

and so when you see these videos later

uh i think dave grulin and justin mackey

will be overjoyed that they didn't

have to hand color each one of these one

of these images

so my hat is off it's a great press

conference today my head is off to the


you know for getting the rover to where

we are and these fantastic images down

and to learn more about that team let me

introduce matt wallace

thanks very much mike and thanks for the

nice words about the uh

the the team i'll try to be brief

because i want to get to this video and

i know you do too

um i just want to give you a little bit

of background on how this whole thing

started my daughter is a

gymnast she's been a gymnast since she


a little kid and when she was about

i guess 11 years old and the project was

still in formulation

she asked me for one of those little

sports cameras

and being the indulgent parent i am i i

got her the sports camera

and she put it in the harness that it

came with and she put the harness on

and she did a backflip and uh

i i don't know about you but uh i cannot


a backflip but when she showed me the


and i watched that camera pan up to the


and then the room go upside down

and then somehow write itself as she

landed on her feet

you know i felt for a moment

that i had a glimpse into what it would

be like if i could do a back flip

and that was the moment that inspired a

phone call to my friend

dave gruel over here

and that's what led to this system

this entry descent and landing camera

system we call them the edl

cams that you're about to see

the product of here just just in a


now i don't know about you but

uh it is unlikely at this point my

career that i will

pilot a spacecraft down to the surface

of mars

but when you see this imagery

uh i think you will feel like you are

getting a glimpse

into what it would be like to land


in jezreel cradle crater with


and so without any further delay i'm

going to turn it over to dave he'll

describe the system and we'll get to the


thanks great thanks matt um

the idea of adding a ruggedized


off shelf hardware onto a flagship


to do a nice to have function proved to

be quite an interesting challenge that


handed over to us along the way we

encountered one

maybe two people who were a little bit


of what we were trying to do but

thankfully we had the full support of

project leadership um all the

individuals directly supporting the 2020

mission were super excited to help and

in the end we were able to actually

make it happen our edl cam team

were guided by uh two two requirements

if you will

um the first one was that the entry

descent and landing system

camera system must do no harm to the

flight vehicle

and that's especially important during

edl this was our one critical


and as you all saw last thursday that

requirement was met

the second item is not so much as of a

requirement as it is

a mantra if you will we get what we get

and we don't get upset um we wanted our

edl cam system

to get onto the vehicle and return

amazing imagery of the

vehicle landing in uh jezreel crater on


like every other element on the mars

2020 spacecraft

individuals worked really hard and went

above and beyond to make sure that their

piece of the spacecraft

did what it was supposed to do and would

be successful

but in the end we knew that our entry

descent and landing

camera system um the mission could still

be 100 successful

if our camera system didn't work and if

we could even get just one

image or one piece of information back

during edl

that we shouldn't get upset and we

should be excited

so as you probably realize after last

friday's press conference

the ddocam system successfully captured


amazing imagery of the vehicle's descent

and landing on the surface of mars

we collected a little over 30 gigabytes

of information

and over 23 000 images of the vehicle

descending down to the surface of mars

as a quick introduction if i could have

the first graphic a reminder for some of


exactly what are the sensors that we

included in the entry descent

and landing camera system uh there are

three cameras that are located on the

top of the vehicle

on the back shell uh those cameras

actually capture a high rate

uh 75 frames a second imagery of the


inflating in the martian atmosphere now

one of the cameras

stopped operating coincident with the

mortar fire when the parachute was


and that's to be expected it is a very

high dynamic environment

but luckily the other two cameras

continue to operate as expected and

captured some amazing

footage of the parachutes inflating in

that martian atmosphere

we put one camera on the bottom of the

descent stage

that camera looked down on the rover as

we lowered the rover on the bridles

the mobility system latched into


and then the vehicle touched down onto

the surface of mars

we also installed two cameras onto the


one on the top of the vehicle looking up

on the descent stage so the rover could

actually see the descent stage

lower it down to the surface and then

ideally fly off

into the distance after it had delivered

perseverance safely under the surface

and then we also put a camera on the

bottom of the rover which actually

looked down on the surface of mars once

the heat shield was dropped away

and that camera continued to capture

imagery until the vehicle touched down

on the surface of mars

and then we also put a microphone on the

port side of

the rover now unfortunately i do have to

say that

we did not collect any audio during edl

but uh please stay tuned a little bit

later in this press conference because

we do have some exciting information


the edl cam microphone so now

the reaction to the edlcam videos has

been absolutely amazing

around jpl and we are

super excited to actually share with all

of you video imagery

of perseverance landing on the surface

of mars

please roll the video starting the

straighten up and fly right maneuver

where the spacecraft will jettison the

entry balance masses

in preparation for parachute deploy and

to roll over to give the radar a better

look at the ground

applicator indicate shoot deploy

the navigation has confirmed that the

parachute has deployed and we are seeing

significant deceleration

in the velocity our current velocity is

450 meters per second at an altitude of

about 12 kilometers from the surface of


heat shield set pressure vans have now

slowed to subsonic

speeds and the heat shield has been

separated this allows

both the radar and the cameras to get

their first look at the surface

current velocity is 145 meters per

second and an altitude of about

10 km nine and a half kilometers above

the surface

now filter converge velocity solution

3.3 meters per second

altitude 7.4 kilometers now has radar

lock on the ground

current velocity is about 100 meters per


kilometers of the surface

perseverance is continuing to descend on

the parachute

we are coming up on the initialization

of terrain relative navigation and

subsequently the priming of the landing

engines our current velocity is

about 90 meters per second at an

altitude of 4.2 kilometers

lvs valid we have confirmation that the

lander vision system has produced a

valid solution

and part of training relative navigation


pba is nominal we have timing of the

landing engines

backshell current velocity is 83 meters

per second

at about 2.6 kilometers from the surface

to mars

we have confirmation that the back shell

has separated we are currently

performing the divert maneuver

current velocity is about 75 meters per

second at an altitude

of about a kilometer off the surface of


here in safety bravo we have

completed our terrain relative

navigation current speed is about

30 meters per second altitude of about

300 meters

off the surface of mars

we have started our constant velocity

accordion which means we are

conducting the sky crane about to

conduct the flight crane maneuver

skytrain maneuver has started

about 20 meters off the surface

we're getting signals from mro

tango delta touchdown confirmed

perseverance the surface of mars

ready to begin seeking the stands of

past life

it gives me goose bumps every time i i

see it just just amazing i hope

everybody kept their uh hands

and arms inside the vehicle at all times

while i was in motion

um so i do need to say uh i wouldn't be

sitting at this podium and you wouldn't

have all seen that uh

amazing uh imagery without a

a lot of support from an amazing team

and both those who worked directly on

the edl cam task as well as those who

supported us

across the project i thank you for

everything you've done to get us here

today uh just an amazing amazing

accomplishment so

um i'm gonna turn over to to al al is

gonna be our color analyst

doesn't have an illustrator but he's

gonna actually walk through some of

those videos in even more detail

and actually show you some just

incredible things that you can actually

see once you look at those videos over

and over

i'm not sure the color commentator is

supposed to have as many chills as i do

right now

and every time i see these videos but i

want to add my thanks to the uh to eel

camera team

i mean these videos and these images are

the stuff of our dreams it's been the

what we've been dreaming about for years

so thank you so much

um let's see uh as uh as dave mentioned

we'll try to walk through

what we see a little bit we won't take

that much time because uh we could spend

literally all day looking at these

videos and some of us have

spent all the weekend looking at these

videos but we'll just try to show you

some highlights of

what we've been seeing and invite you

all to continue to look for more things

as we

kind of see new things every time we

look at these videos

so let's start with the parachute upload

camera and let me give you a quick

warning to not blink

because things go really fast here

you can see that you can get a sense

really of how violent that parachute

deploy and inflation are

the parachute pack it's the parachute is

packed so densely that the

pack is basically the same density as

oak and it's about 150 pounds

it gets launched out of the spacecraft

with a mortar which is basically a


with a muzzle velocity of around 100

miles an hour and the spacecraft itself

was going about a thousand miles an hour

at this point

going about 1.75 times the speed of


so just in case you blink let's show you

that one more time you kind of see that

in uh in

high speed and then or real time and

then we'll slow it down

and take a look at the details okay

so let's try to walk through this a bit

slower this time at about quarter speed

and we'll pause at times to point out

things we see

so let's start that rolling okay

here you can see the pack getting pushed

out of there you can kind of see the

pack right in the middle

as it's being pushed uh and the uh the

parachute lid which is right on top of

it it's kind of that circle to the left

of the pack

was on top of the pack and it was there

to protect the parachute during entry

it's got some thermal protection system

material on it

to keep the parachute nice and cool and

protected and the pack is used to push

that lid

right off the vehicle given that cannon

force you can also see some of the other

things that have popped off of that lid

which is kind of expected given how

violent this uh

this launch really is so let's move on

from here

so we keep going out here you can see

the pack reach what we call line stretch

so that's as far as it's going to go


where the parachute is going to start

inflating that's about 150 feet behind

the spacecraft and it got there in just

under one second so this pack is really


that's pretty much as the parachute

starts to come out you can see the pack

is rotated about 90 degrees

that's pretty common we've seen that in

some of our testing here on earth at

high altitude as well

so let's keep going and take a look at

the inflation

science really looks textbook it's nice

and symmetric

the parachute opens in only about seven

tenths of a second again really fast

there's no evidence of tangling of the

lines which is great that's uh

there's about two miles of lines in the

parachute system

so the fact that we don't see any

evidence of tangling or any kind of

other misbehavior

is great news and i'm sure we'll be

studying this video for many many years


picking it apart frame by frame and of

course we have a second

camera on board as well that recorded

this this launch and inflation of the


um you might notice the pattern that's

on the the parachute here

the sync patterns are useful in helping

us determine the clocking or orientation

of the parachute

also the contrasting sections can be

useful in tracking different positions

of the parachute different portions of

the parachute as it inflates

so it's especially useful when we have

multiple cameras as we do here and are

trying to track features in the

parachute inflating

in addition to enabling incredible

science we hope our efforts and our

engineering can inspire others

sometimes we leave messages in our work

for others to find for that purpose

so we invite you all to give it a shot

and show your work

let's move on to the rover download

camera and take a look at that in a

little bit more detail

so if we start that up you can see the

heat shield falling away very nicely and


pausing here we can take a look at what

we see on the on the heat shield

first we see the medley components on

the heat shield you can see the

electronics box and the gold wires that

lead to all the various

to all the various sensors that measured

the aerodynamics and heating

during entry during the entry portion of

flight we can also see some white flecks

in different places both on the heat

shield and free flying which are likely

frost that accumulated on the heat


that heat shield is really really cold

during cruise so it's not at all

unexpected to see some of that frost

appearing on the heat shield

on the inside you can also see something

we didn't expect to see if you kind of

look at the

four o'clock position on the heat shield

or so

towards the middle somewhere somewhere

between the middle and the edge

one of the springs that helped push the

heat shield off seems to come loose

uh it doesn't you know it's not much of

a big deal but it's definitely

not not what we expected if you look at

the other eight

uh springs they actually are where

they're supposed to be all around the

edge of the heat shield

there's no danger to the spacecraft here

but it's something we

expect and i think we wouldn't see if we

didn't have the camera system to show us

what was going on

so let's keep rolling here we can see

that the heat shield basically stays in

the same orientation as it

flies away from us they'll come back

into view in a little bit but this is uh

this is great this is kind of what we

expected in terms of the aerodynamics of

that heat shield it doesn't tumble or do


weird uh that was unexpected in flight

so that's very useful to have this video

to show us that

so in interest time let's skip ahead uh

to about 15 seconds before backshell


so starting this video here you can see

that the spacecraft is rocking back and


while hanging under the parachute this

this rocket is less than it was earlier

in flight but uh pretty much what we

expect there that white flash was back

shell separation

and you can see us throttle up and begin

our divert maneuver you see the vehicle

is turned over so we're actually

beginning to fly

east and that's why you can see the the

delta over there

as it as it maneuvers eastward to the

eventual landing site it actually passes

over the field of view will pass over

the landing site and then kind of

overshoot it a little bit

because it's got to stop that horizontal

divert that we did

you can see everything's nice and smooth

now that the engines are under control


on-sheet parachute rocking is gone

so here we are slowing down and stopping

and we're coming straight down on our

eventual landing site here

you can see that as we as we're really

going to slow down here you can see the

engines as we get lower

throttle up there and uh and stop us

here and you can see it beginning to

push all that dust around on the ground

on the two sides that shaking there is

the rover deploying and the mobility

during skycrane

and uh here we are coming down and that

that rocking motion of the

of the rover we'll see in other videos

but that settles down right before we

hit the ground in a nice

safe flat spot there doesn't appear to

be too much of concern that's right

below us

so that was the rover's view looking

down let's take a look at the descent

stage view

looking down as well during that

skycrane portion of flight

uh so here we go the rover begins to

drop away from the descent stage and

that's the first

the first part of the mobility deployed

you can kind of see here right before we

pause that the

mobility kind of shook a little bit in

that in that first deployment

uh here you can see the uh the bridles

that are hanging down from the top of

the picture those are what's supporting

the weight of the rover below the

descent stage

and if you look down toward the left the

bottom part of the image and toward the


you can see that gold umbilical that's

uh what's transferring all the

information between the rover and the

descent stage

including this video uh this picture is

coming down from the camera up on the

descent stage down to the rover through

that cord

uh in addition to other information

that's going back and forth

so as we uh keep going here you can see

the bogey

that's on both sides of the mobility

back you see those wheels the back two

wheels on either side swing down

that caused a little bit of rocking of

the rover as expected but you can kind

of see that kind of settles out a little

bit uh right as we enter that that uh

that plume and dust cloud

as we get down and touch down and the

video ends a touchdown of course because

the camera that's taking this video

is about to leave this area in a hurry

on that descent stage after we

uh we cut it loose from the rover um

so now let's take a look at the rover

upload camera so now staring up at the


at the descent stage from the rover

so here we go we got a really close up

look at the descent stage and we can

start rolling that

you can see the descent stage as the

rover begins to fall away from it and

see the effect of that rover wobble from

the mobility deploy

so pausing here the first thing that

most people will probably notice is that

there's no

no plumes or no visible smoke or

anything else coming out of the rockets

at the corner of the descent that's

expected hydrazine doesn't really isn't

isn't a combustion uh reaction when we

when we burn it

the exhaust products are nitrogen and

hydrogen which are clear

so we expect the the plumes to be clear

that's what we see in tests here on

earth as well

uh so i can promise you those engines

are on though uh one thing you can see

in this

in the earth testing we do is that the

chambers the thrust chambers of those

engines get kind of hot

and glow pink and you can kind of see

that in here especially if you look at


the the engine at the very top right of

this image

if you look closely right above the uh

the engine bell there on the truss


you can see little streaks of pink on

there and that's what's happening

as the engines have been on for a long

time they get really hot

um and that heat shows up there in those

pink stripes that we see

so take a look at that closely when you

get a chance to uh to look at the image

in some detail

as with the previous videos you can see

the bridles that are supporting the

weight of the rover there at the bottom

now of this image

and that umbilical again transferring uh

transferring data back and forth between


stage and the rover um so let's keep

going a little bit more

uh you'll see the image begin to wobble

a little bit here i can promise not the

descent stage wobbling it's actually

that rover tipping back and forth a

little bit as we saw as the mobility

deploys both the first initial mobility


and then the the the bogeys deploying

as we near touchdown let's slow it down

a bit and proceed in slow-mo here

um so now we're watching about quarter

speed things are getting pretty dusty

here as we get down

down toward the bottom uh take a look

here at the bottom left of this picture

um you'll see actually the instance that

we cut the descent stage away

and you'll see the models begin to get

retracted up toward that descent stage

as they're pulled up and this is as


see as they got yanked up there right

before and then we'll see the

descent stage begin to turn and ascend

and head out

uh toward the northwest with the

umbilical dangling behind it

since the rover was pointed almost

directly to southeast the descent stage

chose to

to go toward the back that's also to

make sure of course that the

the engines don't plume the rover that

we don't damage the rover

with those that engine thrust so we sent

that descent stage

off to the northwest which uh jessica

will show you about in a little bit

um so i can and have watched those

videos for hours and keep seeing new

stuff every time

so i invite you all to do that too so

now i'll turn it over to justin

who will talk to you a little bit about

the images we've been taking on the


all right thank you al i'm justin mackey


the mars 2020 perseverance imaging

scientist here

and i develop imaging systems at jpl and

uh when

when dave asked me to help out with the

edl cam development about uh

six years ago we were i was really

excited about it and it would be

challenging and interesting

and even possibly spectacular but i had

no idea that it would be this amazing

and we are so

happy and proud and i just want to thank

dave and

matt for just giving us the leadership

and giving us the chance to do this

um like matt and jennifer and rick

and others on the project i've i've

actually worked on all five of the nasa

revolutions and as

part of my job i review images from mars

like every day that's what i do and when

i saw these images come down

i have to say i was truly amazed

i know it's been a tough year for

everybody and we're hoping that maybe

these images will you know help brighten

people's day

you know your smartphones and make them


your screen backgrounds and things i'm

just really happy that it all worked out

so so now we're on mars and

i'm going to talk a little bit about

what we've been doing over the weekend

over the weekend we deployed the rsm if

you go to the first picture

there's a picture of the remote sensing

mask the rsm

which is that mast on the rover and you

can see the navigation cameras up there

the left and right navigation cameras or

nav cams as we call them

this is another new imaging system that

we've developed here specifically for

the 2020 mission

these cameras represent a pretty

significant advancement over

previous imaging systems that we've

flown these are 20 megapixel

color cameras with very high resolution

and wide angle

lenses that we use to basically map out

the surface as the river drives and then

we use these images to do planning and


and so we um the first thing we did

after we deployed the mass is we started

imaging the surface so the next slide

shows one of our first images from the


this image is actually in low resolution


so it's one quarter of the full

resolution of the of the camera so it's

been it's been shrunk down

but you can see right there the vista

that we're seeing this is uh the rover

obviously on mars and you can see some

of the

material that landed on the deck but

everything looks in good shape and so

we're using these images to inspect

not only the vehicle but the surface

around us the next slide shows the view

down towards the surface you can see the

wheels there

this is the same surface you just saw in

the edl cam videos

you can see some of the scouring that

the rocket plumes did for us

clean it off make it nice and clean so

we can take pictures of it and dust it

off for us

the next slide shows a view looking out

towards the south um and this just an

amazing scene here

uh this is it this is mars where we're

here in our place that we're going to be


over the next months and coming years

and it's just

really exciting to see um you know these

scenes look familiar

to us you know they look earth-like in a

sense you know you see them

the mountains back there and the rocks

and things it just

really is the surface of an alien world

and we just arrived you can also see

some more scouring there over on the


the next image looks over towards the

west you can see the delta

out there in the horizon and again more

scouring from the

rocket plumes and then we take all of

these images

and we uh stitch them together into

panoramas and so that next

the the next frame shows the full

panorama from the nav cam

uh stitched together we're still working

out the calibration of things so this is

uh you know approximate color

but it just gives you a feel for the

vista here that we

we're our new environment that we're

going to explore

uh and we're hoping uh everyone will

join us uh

in um seeing these images we're uh

today we're going to be releasing a

whole slew of raw images

it's been a fire hose of data basically

we have thousands of images already from

the edl cameras

nav cams uh you've seen the haz cams and

so we will be putting those uh

out on the website today uh for people

to download and uh

process yourself or just look at the

great picture find your favorite picture

and uh make it make it your screen

background and then the last

image that i just wanted to point out is

the first image one of the first images

from the mastcam

z camera this is another next generation

imaging system on the rover

jim bell is the the pi i'm the deputy pi

for this

working with our industry partners ms

cubed down in san diego

this is just a fantastic imaging system

this is a preview of things to come

this system has a zoom lens on it that's

what the z stands for

uh and we're going to get incredibly

high resolution photos

from this imaging system i just wanted

to point out a few things in this


on the far right you can see those


where they had been cut uh in the video

that you just saw so there's kind of a

close-up of that

and then just in the middle to the left

of that that black

instrument that's uh the rover upload

camera that's the camera that actually

took the video of the sky crane

as as we were coming down and then in

the bottom of the frame is the mass cam

z calibration target

set there's two of them there's the

circular one with the the shadow post

and then the color

chips down the bottom there's another

cal target in the back that's the super

cam instrument

with our partners from los alamos and in


we're going to be commissioning super

cam over the next few days

and then finally just as a teaser i'll

point out that there is a little antenna

there to the right

on that uh box on the center right that

is the helicopter antenna that's a

helicopter base station location

and a preview of things to come we're

excited about that as well

so with that i'm going to turn it over

to jessica to talk about the latest


all right thank you justin i know you

can uh test first hand to

being in the control room and the

excitement that everybody

has been experiencing seeing all these

images from the surface

and as they come down you know we're

immediately sharing them

and everybody clapping and smiles all


great camera suite so i am happy to


that uh perseverance is healthy and

uh continuing with activities as we have


uh planning them over the first few saws

on the surface

to date uh which is really only just you

know three solves of activities and one


and coming up later this afternoon we've


five thou we've executed five thousand

commands so lots of

uh instructions to the vehicle for um

for her to perform and uh having


come back exactly how we've been wanting

it to

with respect to our health checkouts and

our instrument

at checkout so that's been things have

been going well a couple of

key highlights so we have fired and

replete and

released our launch lock restraints to


our mechanisms to be deployed we saw the

remote sensing mast

but one of those also being the high

gain antenna

now this is important for the high gain

antenna to be deployed because it

increases our uplink rate to the rover

and so it will allow us to send a

higher volume of instructions to

perseverance and allow her to perform

more involved activities over the days

to come

additionally with respect to our

communication uh

we have established a strong

communication link

with all of our related orbiters and our


the mars reconnaissance orbiter the

maven orbiter

trace gas observer the tgo

and odyssey spacecraft and so we thank

those teams and are happy to be able to

use those assets

to relay all of the information that we

all these beautiful images that we are


at today the remote sensing mash

remote sensing mast motion checks

were nominal and as expected and

all of our instruments have gone through

their initial checkouts

and are happy to report that they are

all performing

nominally and as expected now when i say


it really means fantastic because we

can't wait to continue to use this

payload suite our backup computer

was turned on yesterday and that was

in preparation for our upcoming flight


uh transition which we will be

performing over the next few days

and the ingenuity helicopter has also

been checked out we have performed a

battery charging event

which we will continue to perform over

the weeks to come in preparation for

that aspect of the mission

but looking ahead we are excited to be


to be on our surface flight software

this is a much more uh surface capable a

lot more capabilities for the surface

mission as part of this flight software


it will take us a few days uh to


but once we're on that load it will

allow us to do further

in-depth checkouts of the instrument as


as deploy the robotic arm and

exercise some of the turret items that

you see in this image

so you can see that we have our coring

drill in the center

our pixel and sherlock instruments

mounted to the side

and that black tank is to support the

gut the

gas dust removal tool which will uh


uh dust from the surfaces that we will

be inspecting later

so uh coming up here the uh the wheels

uh if you noticed in the image now are

off to the side we will be performing a


we'll straighten those up we'll do a

short drive

uh and as i mentioned deploy the robotic


and then continue with further in-depth


so we are very excited to be happily on

the surface

and and exercising our system

and looking for what's ahead

so going back to our partnership with

the larger mars

um spacecraft and science teams and


we're really excited that the mro

spacecraft mars reconnaissance orbiter

and the highrise team was able

to find our hardware on the surface of

mars so if you see in this image

if the next pop-up you can see that we

have the descent stage

the parachute and the heat shield all

here um in this image with a few

stats here the descent stage is about

700 meters

away from where perseverance is on the


parachute is about 1.2 kilometers and

the heat shield about 1.5 kilometers

and so it's a very exciting that we can

see all these

different components now that we've

landed on the surface

and as a special treat uh the high-rise


was able to actually acquire um the

entry descent landing

event from their perspective and we can


have enough images of this activity and

so this is a fantastic view

uh but i'm going to send it back to dave


he uh as part of this suite we have one

more surprise or one more

uh gift i'll say um that uh that we've

been able to

receive from this package over here dave

thanks jessica so

i think we probably have overloaded your

visual sense for a little bit but we're

gonna do something a little bit

different and

i'm gonna have some fun here for a

second too so i'm gonna get rid of this

and i'm going to talk to you now with


this is the microphone that was part of

the edl camera

system when the edl cam system was first

envisioned it was set up as

just a bunch of cameras to capture some

amazing imagery on the surface of mars

and about a year or so after it was

first conceived i got a phone call

another call from matt

after talking to headquarters asked the

question could we possibly put a

microphone as part of our edl camera

system so we worked with the team we

took a look

and uh sure enough it was something that

we could do and so we started off that

detailed design

and uh identifying a microphone that

would work for us and uh getting it onto

the vehicle

about a year after this first started

i'm giving a tour at jpl

and i happened to mention to the group

that i was giving the tour to

that the decision had come down and

we're working to actually include a


onto onto the vehicle and after the tour

was done a gal came up to me

and she said some things to me that i

won't forget anytime soon

she said i'm super excited that you guys

are going to try to put a microphone

onto the rover and get it to the surface

of mars and

and i was very appreciative and i asked

her afterwards i said i'm curious why is

it that this relates to you so much and

her response was that her sister was

visually impaired

she was not able to see these images


that we saw earlier or that we sent down

in the past

and while she tries to describe them to

her she felt that she

just can't quite capture that same sense

of amazement that she gets when she gets

in visually

and that by actually getting a

microphone at the surface of mars

the hope was that she'd be able to

experience things on mars

the same way that uh that she was when

she actually looked at them

and that stuck with me we continued to

work super hard to make sure that this

microphone would work

and that's part of the reason we were

disappointed why it didn't work when we

actually went and did

our entry descent landing sequence um i

wish i had actually captured

that individual's name i would love to

reach out to her now

and say we've done it i hope your sister

is enjoying it

because what i'm going to show you in a

second or what i'm going to you're going

to hear in a second is actually the

first sounds being recorded from the

surface of mars so

there are two microphones on the

perseverance vehicle

there's this microphone here part of the

entry descent and landing system and

there's a second microphone that's on

the supercam instrument

and we're we're counting on both of

these instruments recording some

absolutely amazing uh sounds from the

surface of mars so

with that um i invite you now to if you

would like to close your eyes

and just imagine yourself sitting on the

surface of mars and listening

to to the surroundings if i could have

the first one


so that gentle whirl that happens in the

background that is a noise made by the


but yes what you did here 10 seconds in

was an actual wind gust on the surface

of mars

picked up by the microphone sent back to

us here on earth

the nexus indicates that was around a

five meter per second type of wind gust

so we have actually we can sit here now

and actually tell you that we have


sound from the surface of mars so we

have a second one which basically

further reduces the noise of the rover

so you can just hear uh what the wind

would sound like on mars and once again

i invite you to sit back and have a

listen to what it would sound like to be

on mars

that's just it's cool it's really neat

overwhelming if you will

um i can't remember what i was going to

go and say next

um so looking forward to doing some

amazing things with the microphones

going forward we need to work with the

ops team there's some great science that

they're they're looking to do we're

hopeful that we continue to use these

microphones both the super cam

microphone and the edl cam microphone

to capture sounds perhaps the rocks

interacting with the surface

supercam is going to use theirs to get

some great data of

them zapping rocks so as you've heard

and we'll continue here we're just

beginning to do amazing things on the

surface of mars

and now ken is going to talk to you a

little bit about the science that we've

done to date and what they're looking

forward to doing as we continue to move


thanks dave and i'll start by just

taking this opportunity to say to matt

dave al and everybody else on this

fantastic team

thank you for the ride of a lifetime


is just incredible what we've seen today

and and what i'm sure we'll

we'll continue to see as the mission


so with all the focus on these uh

spectacular videos and audio

uh we wanted to make sure to remind you

that there is plenty of science going on

already with hundreds of team members

poring over every new

image so if we can get the first of


uh images as you'll see in this

navcam frame we start with what may seem


very basic observations light rocks dark

rocks holy rocks that's holy with an e

we use these very generic terms at this

early stage

until we have more data that allow us to

test our hypotheses

and make more confident interpretations

follow along with the mission and you'll

see the theme

as we get closer our view of mars

continues to

resolve and a coherent story emerges

next image please

finally i just want to briefly point out

that we are finding real science value

in these edl cam videos

here you can see a beautiful new

perspective on the jezero delta

and if we can get the next image

also a new perspective on some of the

beautiful stratigraphy

around our landing site which is is up

near uh

uh on the far right side of this image


so now to put all of this in context for

us i'll hand it over to dr thomas


well what we've seen here today is

really nothing

short of amazing you know and i perhaps

you've had moments like this before

some of you have told me that i was

too young to remember but they had a

moment like that for example when they


the first landing on the phone they had

moments like that where it felt

that we took a big leap a big leap not


in this case because of at jpl or at

nasa but at big loop

as humanity uh of course it's a leap

that was enabled by work

over decades and on this mission for

close to a decade

so what's possible today or feels

possible is different

even and yesterday it's how it

feels to make history and i just that's

how i feel today i'm so

moved by this wow the video of

perseverance to sand and landing and the

amazing panorama and the first

white landscape shot of jesuit scene

with human eyes and the first martian


are the closest you can get the landing

on mars without putting on a pressure


that video i believe should become

mandatory view

for young people who not only want to

explore other worlds

and build spacecraft to take them there

but also want to be

part of diverse teams achieving

all the audacious goals of our future

at the center of that is a team and i'll

ask for the next image

now you should know i met this team i

see me there in a dark suit

next to dr laurie glaze the body

division director and how he just uh

he just talked to you is on his knee and

there and he entered ascendant landing

team and we met him

just hours before that historic landing

and i love this picture because of


the event today demonstrates that the


aspect of exploration and that is of


every reason for what we can do at nasa

and also

why we do things video images here

are provided to us are from the surface

of mars and sometimes we forget if we

look at that

well hope it shouldn't get all the fun

uh we want to make sure that all of us

on earth see and feel what it's like to

be on our mars and explore other worlds

i'm so excited for the more than one

million students who join the mars

student challenge

and the many more across the world will

be inspired by these

images released today and even yesterday

their journey is also just the beginning

just imagine imagine perseverance

sitting on a hill

recording the next martian landing

with a cargo that is basically a rocket

and then the first

from another world with samples bound

for earth

that are collected by perseverance now

in the near future

imagine follow the entry descendant of

the first human crew on the planetary

surface sometimes

in the future these hit future

historical way

which i'm confident will happen will be


by women and men working in diverse


imagine the goals we can achieve

together so what is possible

sometimes to address that question it's

good to look back and think where we've

come from just like my friend mike did


we've been on a journey both as a human

race for

for quite a while now and i don't want

to show this next image of

sojourner of the pathfinder mission

uh which was designed for seven souls or


days or so maybe 30 ultimately lasted

for 85

earth days in 1997. i

remember that really this thing clear

through pathfinder instead

in indeed that you know weighed 23

pounds and i

returned a surprising amount of data

back to earth and i'm trying a

surprising amount of science for many

scientists i must say

some people didn't it's back quite that

much and that's what happened sometimes


when you were in a white bait just like

uh we've seen here

we've grown from that seat that

perseverance is the size of a small car

and it's ready

for us for the next shine leaves and

here's a picture

that we're putting up that is one of the

many pictures

that we're releasing and of course it's

a picture

one of my absolute favorite and that's a


of the sample caching system on there

because it's that

sample caching system that will connect

this mission

to the samples that will bring back to


and other historic feed we're working on

this system is on the surface of much

now i remember just

by looking at it before we packed it up

from jpl and moved it over

then of course uh launched it uh from

from the top of a rocket that's my


it's one of the indelible moments in

nasa's history

where what we can see and what we can

learn and what we can hope for in the

future and the extraordinary emotions

that takes

makes us feel all of us coming together

that human element will fill our future

at mars which is bright indeed

and it will fuel the dreams of a new


and will return to mars and also study

the samples

that we will eventually bring home i'm

so grateful

to this team and literally the thousands

both at jpl and within the us and around

the world

to all of you who have engaged in this


as has been noted the raw image pipeline

is opening up please go take a look at

these data and play with them especially

those of you

uh the children and the youth that have

signed up to our educational campaign

what can you find in these pictures and

who's going to compose the first piece

of music with actual mars

sound mike matt jennifer al

many of you leaders and could not be

more proud of both you

and your team on behalf of our entire

nasa leadership team

a heartfelt and the proud thanks to you

for the record matt i'm so glad for your


about these cameras we will learn a lot

from that

much more than we ever expected and of

course this is just

a start for the surface team a real work

starts now to evaluate the surrounding

and start a plan and our trajectory

across chessroad crater

it's a big team and there are lots of

discussions but that's science in action

stay with us there is much more

amazement to come back to your account

thank you thomas and we'll now move on

to your questions

remember if you are a member of the

media on the phone line you can press

star one to get into the queue

if you're on social media you can tag

questions with the hashtag

countdown to mars now starting on the

phone line is bill harwood from

cbs news

yeah hi um i guess it's a pharrell or

maybe for matt

i mean other than the the loose spring

you guys on the heat shield is there

anything at

all in that video that looked off

nominal i mean

you know it looked like it was almost

textbook um

and i'm not saying that just to i don't


give you free praise but i didn't see

you know i don't see anything like that

so is there anything thanks

and we've been i can take that when uh

we've been pouring over those videos and

looking for anything that uh that could

be wrong and also looking at the rest of

the data and we did have a pretty clean

run uh through through entry descent


uh there are a couple bits of the uh

pair of the parachute lid

that came off some of that was expected

in fact we knew that there was some risk

of that as well and there was if you

look at the video you can actually see a


uh that's the uh the radome it's a uh a


uh for one of the uh pair one of the

login antennas we use during cruise and

also during part of edl

uh that came off uh we had hoped that it

wouldn't when we tried to restrain

it a little bit better but we knew that

it was a risk that it might

um so that's something we noticed uh

that's on there as well there's a couple

other little things that we've been

taking a look at

uh but i think you're in general right

that the the actual ascent landing

system behaves as expected

and did what it had to do especially

given uh and the big shout out to the

terrain relative navigation system which

put us down uh in the safest spot that

was available to us

the places that we had to choose from

weren't great if we didn't have

something like three and although


so yeah the landing system worked great

great thanks al and up next we have

marcia dunn from the associated press

yes hi um wonderful video i'm just

wondering did the jpl team

get to see snippets coming down in the

video um

and then or did you have to wait until

this one minute

video was put together what was the

reaction when you

saw first saw the video and laid eyes on

it and

and for david um why do you think mike

didn't work during defense thank you

i could say a couple words about the um

the first part

i had trouble leaving this mission

support area this week just because

i kept waiting for every little bit of

information to come back from

particularly from these cameras but from

the vehicle in general

and i can tell you every time we got


people were overjoyed

giddy they were like kids you know in a

candy store

uh you know we get a little bit we get a

thumbnail which literally is just a

really low res blobby looking thing

of of one of those videos that came down


and we'd just be falling on the floor

excited with what we were seeing and

that's before even the high-res came

you know there's a lot of people

that have contributed to to this entry

descent and landing system

our our chief engineer adam stelzner

happens to be here

in the uh the studio he was kind of the

father of the sky crane system this

started 15 years ago for him

he and his team have never seen this

system operate before not even on the

earth because we can't test it on the


so this is the first time we've had a

chance as engineers to actually see what

we designed

and uh i just can't it's hard for me to


express just how emotional it was and

how exciting it was for everybody

as we got this information down i'll

turn it over to dave to say a couple


before you said that can i just chime in

on the the first image of this justin

i will say um when when we get these

first image

any of these imaging systems the test

images never look as good as the real

thing it's not even close

in fact it's very hard to simulate a lot

of these things especially these

you know sky cranes and things and so

the images that we normally see during

test programs are you know there's

always like a ladder in the background

or the lighting's never quite right or

there's a car

in the case of the edl cams where these

big targets out in parking lots and

we were dodging cars to try to do our

tests and things and so

that moment that you get these images

from mars it's it's just kind of an


feeling where it just all just snaps

into place and you get these pictures

that are just like

perfectly you know they're pictures of

mars that you can never simulate here on


and i think that we all experience that

especially after you

we go through months and months of

testing and the images

don't really look that great and you

know people get skeptical like are these

these cameras really that great because

you know that looks like a garage or

something uh so

we're it's just amazing to get these

pictures and i just i think we all feel

that way because we're all

seeing pictures of insides of labs and

everything and they're never that great


uh it's amazing to get these photos from

mars okay

i'll give you my take so uh thursday

evening and

friday when the data started to come

down and

uh we kind of realized what we had i was

sitting at home

and my phone started to go off and i was

getting face times from people who were

in the msa and what was happening was

that they were starting to show them on

the monitors that we have hanging on the


and people were turning their phones

around and saying girl you got to see

this reaction

and people were just jumping up and down

and giddy and ecstatic and it

it was a great feeling i mean from where

i was sitting i only was excited to see

these videos that we had captured

it was also the fact that a lot of

people had put a lot of effort in to

make this system work

and to actually reward that effort and

to to pay it back and

and get this excitement going it made me

super happy i was glad to see that all

the hard work all the dedication had

come in and that everyone was just

excited about uh not only what we

captured but

also what this mission um could do going

for forwards

it was a great feeling it was a feeling

i won't i won't forget for for quite

some time

and then regarding the question about

the microphone we started to look at it

what we think happened is that there was

a communication error

between uh the device that is

responsible for

uh digitizing the analog signals that

the microphone pick up and then passing

them back to the

uh the computer that actually stores all

the data we're not exactly sure why it

could have been a fact it was just so

much data coming into the system we

tested it but

you know obviously everything's a little

bit different on mars than we actually

have here here on the ground so

we were pretty quickly able to determine

didn't think there was a hardware issue

with the microphone which is why we were

able to uh

approach the product and get their

concurrence to try to turn the

microphone on then on that saw

ii boundary it's just unfortunate that

that error happened during the edl

and and we just weren't able to record

any of the data that uh that we

generated uh during the sequence

all right thanks and up next we have


from the washington post hi

uh thanks for taking the time and for

showing us i really appreciate it um

i wonder if you could talk a little bit

about the cameras that were used to

record the video

i understand they were specially

designed maybe a commercial company


fl ir systems just curious to know

like what goes into you know designing a

camera that's sustaining the the g's the

blast of the thrusters

everything that it's got to go through

to capture that images

thanks okay so the cameras were

originally purchased

from a company called uh point grey uh

which was then bought out by flir

and i can tell you that uh modifications

we made to the camera were minimal this

was not a camera specifically designed

for use on mars

you can purchase the same camera off the

internet for whatever applications you

might have for it

the only things we did is we actually uh

added some bonding material on the


to try to make sure that in the dynamic

environment of launch

and then that mortar fire event that

they talked about uh that the camera

will continue to operate

and then we had to swap out a couple

pieces on the inside because

in the vacuum of space they had the

ability to outgas

material and if that material deposited

itself on the detector then we wouldn't


the clear images that we actually got

but other than that

it was not specially designed for use

for this application it is a commercial

off-the-shelf camera

thank you and up next we have michael


from cnc

hi congratulations again on catherine's


stumping footage of this landing i'm

curious on two aspects i mean

one at adam seltzer you know you guys

had said that in 15 years since he

really engineered the sky crane you've

never actually seen an operation

i'm curious what adam thinks about

seeing this

uh work on a planet and secondarily

how this informs and how it's being able

to actually see the landing

and forms future missions even as

nasa looks to one day land astronauts

you know what does this really teach you

about trying to get people on the

surface of mars

uh well let's see adam's not up here but

i can uh i can channel him for for just

a moment perhaps and

and tell you that uh you know this is a

thrill of a lifetime

i think not just for adam but all the

people that

contributed uh to to this architecture


uh back on curiosity i remember

when we first briefed this uh

this this system you know with the

supersonic parachutes and

you know multi-body systems and we're

gonna lower this thing on a tether and


just looked at us like we were insane

you know

and uh adam uh and his team

of which al was part you know they kept

at it and they explained why it made

sense they explained why it was robust

they explained why it would work it was

not easy to build i will tell you that

as as the flight system manager on

curiosity but

once you build it and once you test it

it's something

that really is designed inherently to

interact with the uncertainties that

throw at you throws at you and

and so i think being able to see his


operate like this you know in high


landing at jezreel you know it doesn't

get too much better than that i don't


so i'm going to throw it to al he can

maybe say a few words about the types of

technologies and

and information that we have on the

technologies on the system and

information we got getting back from

edl and we'll be getting back as part of

our reconstruction activity

that feed into the future yeah i mean i

think we can talk about a lot of things

i mean

but as matt matt mentioned you know as a

fresh-faced kid

uh when this guy was invented and i was

in that room and uh

it's it's amazing to see it finally in

action even though we knew it worked


we didn't know for sure it was going to

work again and then for it to work again

and then

for us to see it is incredible and just

starting with skycrane there you can see

some things that i think are going to be

useful to the future

uh one thing that's of course of a lot

of interest especially as we start

landing bigger things is the plume

ground interaction

the interaction between those rockets

and what they're doing to the ground and

how they kick things around

and we've got great video of that here

this time both from the rover download

camera and the descent stage down the

camera we can see how those uh

how they create those scours and stuff

gets pushed together and creates a sheet

underneath the rover

we can see that all occurring so that's

super useful

uh the parachute stuff too one thing we

didn't show uh necessarily here is that


the parachute upload cameras the two

that we got are at 75 frames per second

so we can see that inflation that only

occurs in you know 0.7 seconds in less

than a second

and see that snap open and look at all

the details of how it unfolds and

and how it's symmetrically inflated and

all those things are very useful for


missions uh both whether they're landing

more things in people or stuff

and then people um you know other

missions are going to use

future missions like the sample

retrieval missions are likely going to

use things like parachutes and rockets

of course

so we're very interested in seeing how

uh how those

those cameras and what we see in the in

that in those camera images can teach us

about how those systems are actually


and make our systems more robust in the


thanks alan matt up next we have ken

chang from the new york times

hi thank you um i wanted to give me a

few more details about

how the data came back there's 30

gigabytes that was collected

how much has come back and what was the

data rate that you were able to send the

information back

thank you maybe jessica can uh so i can

say that

as part of our commission activity we

actually walk the data rate

up uh over the course of our different

overflights with the orbiters

and uh so we start um with

two ver a lower rate

um two thousand eight thousand and then

we mo

we increase that into an adaptive data

rate with the orbiter in which we

can continue to go many uh megabits

um i'm sorry two meg eight meg and then

uh much further beyond that um over the


the total volume that i don't have off

the top of my head and so maybe i don't

know if

that's something that dave or we can

provide for you later

justin do you have how many how many

images we got back yeah

so uh we counted yesterday that we're

releasing today there's a about

4 500 that we've gotten so far that

we're pushing out to the web today

um and i will mention that when the

orbiters could fly overhead

the compasses typically return let's say


to 900 megabits per pass

and we've had i don't know we've had a

lot of them now like five or

ten of them we've typically had two to


over flights per night and it does vary

the rates i was referring

are the communication rates from the

rover to the orbiter

and then once that's collected then

we're anywhere from

you know some passes smaller 80 uh to


and where we've had other passes which

have been significant

amounts of data up at 700 and so it is

variable per orbiter

and per orientation yeah and i want to

add one more thing i wanted to mention

about the the camera technology and then

this data

um we haven't mentioned it but in

addition to use commercial cameras um

we're using a commercial computer an

intel based

pc that's running linux open source so

it's the first open source at least that

i know of

open source linux box running on the

surface of mars especially inside the

rover it's

quite compact and so there's the linux

operating system

and we compress the video using ffmpeg

which is another open source tool so

thank you to the open source community

for allowing us to use your amazing


appreciate it i just uh just

very briefly i just want to note as

jessica said

um you saw some of the terrific imagery

from the mars reconnaissance orbiter

we've been getting fantastic support

from the orbiter community

not just mro uh for for both that

imagery and the comms

uh but also uh from maven which is a

goddard space

spacecraft from odyssey one of our older


uh in isa european uh trace gas orbiter

as well some of the biggest

data volume passes we've had brought

back a lot of this imagery

came from our partners in europe and so

thank you all to them

okay and up next on the phone lines is

mike wahl


thank you all for doing this and yeah

yeah it's really amazing video thanks

for sharing it um

just yeah there's a question for for

dave um

what do you anticipate doing maybe with

with the edl mic now that it's up and

running do you see it having any kind of

diagnostic uses during the deployments

of the robotic arm and sort of like like

the instrument checkouts and so forth

um yeah i mean what do you see it doing

aside from recording martian wind and

the sound of the dirt under the wheels

and so on

thank you yes we've had a lot of

discussion about how we might be able to


both the edl cam microphone and the

super cam microphone to do those type of

diagnostic stuff i mean

the ops team right now i don't want to

jessica but they're focused on getting

the system deployed and capturing

noise of that is definitely not the

first priority they need to focus on

getting this vehicle ready to perform

some amazing science

but that doesn't mean in the future we

could not sit down and discuss the

possibility of capturing

audiophiles of an actuator as it

actually uh

spins on the surface of mars um you know

that the noise is an incredible thing

that engineers can use to basically

detect the health of moving systems

gears and actuators and things like that

and so

if we get a snapshot of actuator today

and uh you know you can compare over

time do another snapshot another audio

file of that

of that actuator in the future compare

the two and see if there's anything that

can be learned in terms of the health of


that device now with that said i do need

to remind everybody that uh

the the microphone that's in the edl

camera system just like all of the the

cameras and other hardware is off the

shelf hardware

it is not designed to live in the

hostile environment of mars it gets down

120 degrees plus below zero at night and

then it warms up significantly more in

the day to

what minus 40 or something like that so

those temperature cycles and that cold

temperature are going to

significantly limit the life of of these

devices they're just not designed to

last for long periods of time the

supercam microphone might continue to

work it actually is designed a little

bit more

for this particular environment it can

last longer so i think

you know as you heard i think dr zee

mentioned earlier we're always surprised


how rugged and robust some of our items

are how long they actually last

you know they they continue to operate

far longer than we designed them

we've gotten pretty lucky over the last

couple of days perhaps we'll get lucky

and the hardware will continue to

operate uh

on the surface of mars and allow us to

do those type of diagnostic things in

the future

well jeff you want to add anything more

about how you might consider using them

uh well i can i can say that that

application was one of the things that

we had projected

and tested and wanted to make sure that

even though this was

a capability that was part of the cruise

and entry descent landing software

package that we're operating right now

we've also carried that capability

forward into our surface software

and so um for assuming the hardware is

good we

were open and ready to use it yeah and i

will mention

um to the question we we actually have

gotten requests from instrument teams

wanting to turn on the microphone to

observe their instrument functioning

moxie is one of the instruments that's

going to be generating oxygen has

compressors and scroll pumps and things

and they actually want to want us to use

the microphones to do diagnostic

acoustic measurements so i actually

think that this might become something


all rovers might want because everybody

knows that when you hear something

squeaking it's diagnostic maybe you need


check it out and it tells you a little

bit about how it works

and so we will find out how these get

used it's actually kind of exciting

and we're getting requests from the

teams so we're gonna and we're working

to put those into the plan

well i'll just say i hope it does

survive long enough

so that we can hear those wheels crunch

over the surface of the planet because i

think we would hear it

and i think uh it'd be great to hear

that big rotary percussive

jackhammer drill taking that first


of a rock on on mars as well i think

we'd hear that also

so i'm hopeful that that our little

microphone will hang in there for

for some of those events

okay and up next is lisa grossman from

science news

hi thanks for taking my question um the

video is amazing and a lot of it looks a

lot like the

um animations that you've shown before

the landing to to kind of advertise this

excuse me going forward how will you

distinguish the video

that is the real video from the

animation to kind of make it clear to

people what they're looking at and

keep them from getting confused or not

be fueled for conspiracy theorists

saying we haven't actually done this

i guess i could try to take that one i

mean i think we should label

very clearly which ones are from mars

and uh and not

uh i think it's clear to a lot of us but

i think you're right right given the way

that uh the animation's been pretty good

uh you getting a good sense for uh for

how that could be confusing i think we

should label them going forward now that

we have this kind of you know

we should be clear what's uh what's real

what a great problem to have exactly i

mean it's an amazing problem


justin do you have anything uh anything

any thoughts here

yeah i i can attest to it's real it's

actually real i know because i

know the data very well it's it's

stunning and it's real and that was our

thought too when we first saw it we're

like wow this

looks like doesn't look real um but it


and that's what's so amazing about it

and um

you know i i know i've seen some of the

video games are getting pretty good you


second glance you look at a sports game

and it looks like it's real but it's

fake but this

is actually real stuff and that's why

it's so exciting

um and i actually just want to say for

those of you that

go watch the videos personally i like

watching like quarter

quarter speed or even slower because

there's so much detail in there

that anyone who's done animations know

that knows that that would take a lot of

time to do

and it all happened so quickly and the

camera cut everything and so that's how

that's how we know it's real because we

we know so much about these these

systems but uh there's just so much


um that that's that's one way that you


you could look at um but yeah there's

one other thing i forgot too i remember

early on

msl when they started coming up with the

animation for uh for curiosity's landing

uh we had a discussion about the uh the

plumes actually coming out of this end


uh and the fact that uh that they were

clear and that you wouldn't see them

uh in real life like you can do you

don't see them in the rover opel camera

um but uh we thought that it would be uh

that people would be expecting to see

them in the

in the animation so they took some

artistic license and putting them there

so here i can tell you now that

hopefully our future animations will uh

will show the right thing and show the

uh the clear plumes like you see in the

real video

yeah the same comment for the exquisite

detail on the rover if you actually look

at you know every cal targets in place

every little

twist in every tie cable tie they're all

there in the animations you don't have

that when you get down to that level of


at least at least now you you know

typically don't because a lot of the

things happen

kind of last minute and you know the

rover's getting built and people slap

things on and they're not in the drawing

so the animators don't pick it up and

that's another thing that's amazing

about this video

every single detail is in there so

encourage people to look at it

it's fun thanks justin it really is some

beautiful detail

now we have a social media question to


jerome on twitter asks some pictures we

can see dirt and small rocks

inside the real wheel rim was this

expected and

will it become an issue if more dust and

sand is picked up along the way

yep i can i can speak to that so uh

it's not uncommon for us to have uh


and dirt inside the wheels um either

from the landing event

or as we're driving across the surface

you'll also notice on the deck

we also experienced some of that debris

coming down

on top of the rover and we design our

mechanisms for these conditions

so we don't expect any issue with the

material from the landing event or as we

continue to surf the

rove across the surface

thanks jessica and right now we have a

call from

eric berger on ars technical

yes hi thank you very much for doing

this congratulations on such a stunning

um array of photos and videos um alan

chen or al chen mentioned the dust

earlier and i

it was striking as the spacecraft got

close to the surface how much was kicked


it's a one-ton rover it's pretty sizable

but you know when you're talking about

human missions

um it's it's much larger and so you know

what does

you know what does being able to see

this dust tell us about the challenge of

landing future

kind of much larger spacecraft on mars

is that something

that you're going to have to account for

and if you know

is it going to be a really significant

issue to deal with thank you

yeah i think i take that one i mean i

think you know as most people know right


as far as i'm aware there are no landing

pads on uh on mars or barges that we can

land on

uh prepared places so we we're gonna

have to deal with especially if we use

repulsion where we have to deal with

uh this plume ground interaction and

it's really difficult it's difficult to

get right

to get the modeling right to get uh to

understand it or even to do a real test

that does

that shows a good impression of what

you're going to come down on especially

when you don't know exactly where you're

going and what the terrain is like

and what the ground properties are where

you're coming down so i do think this is

a big challenge

for us going forward and that's why

collecting this information here is


we can certainly begin to see how it

actually behaved in real life and see

how things

began to move and what those scours are

like and we have a vehicle that'll tell

us what the ground that we happen to

land on was like

and we know how we recommend those those

engines and where they were pointed

so we have a rich treasure trove here

that we can use to kind of

get at that kind of challenge but

because i do think it's a big one

especially as we start to land heavier

and heavier things

with bigger and bigger engines

and up next on the phone lines is joey


from the verge hey uh thanks for

doing this um earlier it was mentioned

that scientists are

already uh pouring through the thousands

and thousands of images and

i was just wondering what about um the

surface or the rocks that you guys have

seen so far from these images

are standing out uh and kind of what has


interesting from a scientific

perspective thanks

ken ken's there yeah okay ken

sure uh so uh you can go online and

see that image uh that was put up uh

during my

little bit there but um we're noticing

basically the different

colors that we see and and textures and

tones and

and so one thing that's striking to me

standing out to me

some of us is that um a lot of the the

rocks that are labeled

as light rocks uh seem to have a rough


uh whereas some of the darker rocks

further afield that that are

higher standing more like large boulders

um seem to be smoother um

that can mean something about the the

grain size and the

and the potentially the composition uh

of the rocks themselves

one of the things where we're noting um

as the resolution gets better

is that these these light rocks uh

closer to the foreground

may actually be kind of dark on the


and that the light tone we see may be

largely due to dust covering

uh and where the rocks stand up a bit


and have less dust they tend to appear

dark so a lot of

you know new patterns are emerging um

and then of course one of the most

exciting and interesting things

are these what we call the holy rocks uh

that are you know in some cases right

under our wheels and these smaller


that are right around the rover um

i didn't mention uh but you know one of

the possibilities for those holes

is that they are what we would call

vesicles which would be

uh due to gas escape from a volcanic


we're not calling them vehicles at this

point because we it's important for us

to stay open to the

you know different possible

interpretations and not get locked

yet on limited data but if they are


that is is enormously important uh to us

because it potentially provides an

opportunity to get a a really nice

radiometric age or an absolute date uh

if a sample

like that comes back to earth but then

again if you go back to

to images from many uh previous uh mars


rovers and otherwise you'll see that


wind abrasion can cause those those

sorts of holes

in all different types of rocks uh so

just a few of the thoughts that are that

are emerging and then

of course we're starting to get views of

the delt front now which just

have us you know on cloud nine uh

looking at some of the targets further

afield that we're excited to explore

great thanks ken we have another phone

line question mark zastrow from

astronomy magazine hi

thanks for taking my question um i guess

this is a question for al

and i was just wondering if you could

speak to

the performance of the landing vision

system if you've gotten a chance to dive

into that how the range figure and

terrain relative navigation really

performed and just sort of

what it was thinking how it was making

its decisions as it descended

uh and then when you look at its

performance and accuracy you know how do

you judge it

and can you see that improvement over


yeah that'd be great i mean i was really

hoping for a chance to speak that a

little bit actually uh the lander's

vision system as part of the train

relative navigation system

really did great um in fact you know

here's some stats right the uh

updates on the targeted well we took

many images on the way down

uh we got tons of landmarks we're real

very able to match up what we saw with

our onboard map

was almost perfect better than many of

our field tests or even simulations

so we got a very good uh good lock on

where we were

and in fact when you combine that with

our safe target selection and where we

flew to

we only missed the targeted pixel by by

about five meters

so we were aiming for a particular spot

on the planet once it decided what was

reachable and what the safest spot was

and given the uh given how well the

lander vision system performed

and our system in flying is there we

only missed by five meters

so that was really great i mean i think

the uh we've really showed that this

system can do what we

what we wanted it to do in helping us

figure out where to go and go to a safe


great thanks al we have so many

questions coming in that we are going to

keep the phone lines open for a little

while longer

to press start one to get in our queue

for now i'm going to take a social media


from bob on twitter who asks how does

the processing power of the onboard


compare to a great smartphone matt do

you want to

take that one yeah sure that's that's a

good question you know

in the space business um we have to

build things that we know uh are gonna

are gonna work

and space is a pretty hostile

environment and the surface

of mars is even worse with the

temperature swings which we were talking


you know you need systems that are

capable of um

of dealing with the radiation and and

the temperatures

and and really perform with very high

reliability so as a result of that

we have a tendency to use systems that

have been around for a while they're

well shaken out uh and on

uh on perseverance we're using the same


that we used on on curiosity in large

part because we know it worked and we

wanted to have that successful flight


that we had from from the previous

mission so this is a computer that

you know you would have found 15 or

maybe even 20 years ago

that were flying having said that

these edl cameras which we were just

talking about are off the shelf

you know state-of-the-art new technology

and it is always a thrill for us when we

have the opportunity like we did in this

particular application

uh to bring that kind of technology into

our systems

uh it's a very powerful way to multiply


our uh our functionality and our


and uh and so this was a great example

of being able to use

um new technology uh so

uh so i don't know if that's uh an exact

answer to the question but

uh in short that's uh you know that's uh

that's a summary great thank you matt


thomas uh we actually have a question

for you coming in hayden

an 11 year old from ireland on twitter


what advice would you give to a budding

planetary scientist

in working towards maybe being part of

the mission that will bring

back samples to earth in the future

well i'm so glad for that question i

think about that a lot and the advice

would i would give is

first of all that's exactly the right

time to get into that career

braden that that now it could not be a

better time to join that career or even

if you

started 10 years earlier or you know in

10 years

now is the time to start that the advice

i would give

is look uh go really

start playing with data right away kind

of i mean

yes go to school you know the teachers

that are there are your

allies going forward you know to


probably open me perhaps at the

university or at an advanced school but

go to school do that but the other thing

i want to just

give you advice on hating this is you

know we're putting all these data

out be your own researcher learn how to

do that

kind of go play with it that's what

research is so much about and find

others who are just excited as excited

as you are

and i'm sure soon enough we'll have you

on our teams

in uh in the future that's some great

advice thank you thomas

and up next we have on the phone lines

alexandra witz from nature magazine

great thanks very much i'm not quite

sure who to address this to

but i wanted to ask about insight and

whether insight had heard perseverance


so i'm not sure anybody up here has the

latest information have do you al have

you heard anything now

just heard from other folks on the team

i'm not sure this is official or not but

that they

hadn't seen much yet i think we'd have

to check uh

to be honest to be sure we got the right

answer so

great thank you and then another phone

line question from

jackie goddard from the times of london

hello congratulations everyone one of

the most common questions that i get


readers who aren't generally a

scientific audience but

regular folks is what is the point

of spending all this money to go to

another planet and explore it

and sometimes that's not even a question

it's a statement there are cynics out


can you say why we explore and how does

humanity benefit

from you finding out what you find out

and doing what you do

thank you


yeah why don't i why don't i get started

turn it over to you matt is that okay if

i start not you good with that yeah so

frankly i'm thinking about this question

all the time

why do we explore and of course when we

do that at nasa i just wanna just

let everybody know that if you look at

how much money we're spending on each

planet and the exploration of each

planet of course the majority

uh kind of that the money where the the

planet we're spending most money on

of course is the earth the place where

we live where our friends live where our

history is and we're so where our future

is going to be

and so we're not confused about the

importance and just as excited about the

the amazing future of what exploration

is uh going forward

exploration for us though is broader

than just

what is useful right now and and the

reason we're so convinced that that is

important is first of all

uh the questions that have driven

humanity important questions truly

historic questions

in so many ways are what we're really

about addressing those is what we're

really about as humans we want to be


you know as we look at our contributions

of our generations that we

really move forward uh what we know and

how also

uh really affect how we think about

ourselves and that so often comes

through our research there's a second

reason though

it's truly secondary but i'm going to

mention it anyway

so often and surprisingly

the results of the technologies that

we're building

for the very questions that are really

driven by

fundamental science questions are


useful and i just want to remind you

that perhaps today

whoever asked that question is driving

around in a car with a gps system built

for an entirely different purpose and

looked at the weather forecast

with the both was not anticipated when

in fact uh we built the first earth

satellite so

yes we want to uh kind of focus on the

immediate needs today and it's really

important but it's so critical for us

as a species to look forward and explore

matthew thanks thomas i i think you said


really well you know i've been landing

things on mars now for

25 plus years and so i've had a chance

to go out and

and talk to a lot of different people

and it's it's not unusual when somebody

asks this question and and i used to

you know have a long list of of reasons


and there are a good long list of

reasons um but but fundamentally

i've come to the conclusion that in some

ways it's kind of a

moot question um because how can we not


it's just who we are it's what we are

it's in our dna

you know you almost you couldn't stop us

as a species

from exploring i don't think i think

it's part of the reason why we're

you know at the top of the food chain is

because we're curious because we want to

go to places

we haven't been we want to answer

questions we don't know the answer to

sometimes we want to find the questions

we don't even know need to be asked

you know it's just it's just part of

part of who we are

and and it opens new

horizons new frontiers

it inspires us it inspires kids

you know and as as thomas mentioned all

the academic programs that

that are paying attention here science

to technology

that that we bring to the table that

that's important for us

uh you know and uh i think that's the

best i can do to answer that question

there's a lot of reasons

all right we can move on now to another


from matt kaplan from planetary radio

hi everyone congratulations uh from

not just me but all of the planetary


um i've been texting with uh our boss

uh bill nye the science guy who's been

watching uh everything along with us

and uh here's part of his reaction oh my

this is astonishing

astonishing dare mighty things

but here's my question for ken williford


getting these first images and video

from so much closer to the surface of


than we have from the orbiters in spite

of the great job that they're capable of

does this start to make you think about

the potential

of doing this on a regular basis from

balloons or

let's say a helicopter

well sure you know almost everything i'm

thinking about right now is potential

um i've uh i guess i've compared it

um you know to several people who have

asked me how i'm feeling

you know what's it like and and the

closest thing i can compare it to

is i would say the birth of my daughter

you know where

uh the the cruise phase that's about

eight months long

you know is like that uh that nine month

period where you're just waiting and

you're just hoping everything goes right

and then

and then she's born uh in this case

we're on the surface

and it's real and the potential is

astounding i mean i was just uh

katie stack and i were just texting last

night as we got some new images down and

and we're just you know we're so excited


like kids just looking at every picture

and and seeing so many new things and

having so many new ideas and new

questions are appearing

and and the potential of it all is is

what strikes me

more than anything we have so far to go


so much to learn uh and i just couldn't

be more

more grateful to have made this

transition from

from all the years of hard work and and

stress and wondering

you know is it going to work out how's

it going to work out to now when

we actually get to do this thing uh it

it's just

it's it's amazing

thanks ken and up next we have irene

klotz from

aviation week thanks

uh just looking ahead a bit um what's

been they put

it's probably for jessica have you made

any progress

homing in on a site for the helicopter

flight demos

and if so about how far from the

perseverance landing site are those

so the team has started to evaluate um

and is uh

using the images that we've received

from entry descent landing as well as

now these

uh images that we've acquired over the

last couple saws

uh we are fortunate to have landed in a


spot for that but the team is still


and uh is looking forward to

additional imaging from the 360 degree

panorama from the

mass chem z as well as a

future data that's to come down so we

have not locked in a site yet and that

will still be

work for the team uh to go looking

forward uh whether it's here

or a few 100 meters away

and we have a social media question

coming in

jake who is 12 years old on youtube asks

was there one point you thought that

this would be impossible to do

that that's a that's a great question

jake um

there might have been many points when

it felt a little impossible

i'll just i'll give you my one moment

and then

the other folks may may want to add in

and that's uh

you know last march when the

uh kova pandemic struck you know we just

um we were we just shipped the

spacecraft down to kennedy

dave gruel who believe it or not this

whole edl camera gig

is is is not what he does for a living

he was our assembly test and launch

operations manager

and he along with his deputy art

thompson were responsible for

assembling the flight spacecraft testing


and getting it down uh to the launch pad

for for launch that's actually

what he did for a day job so so the

pandemic struck about a year ago and

dave and i

and art and others were just constantly

on the phone trying to figure out how to

react to it and how to respond to it you

know we

um i said it before we didn't have a lot

of margin we didn't have a lot of time

um you know we were we were figuring out

a lot of things as quickly

as we could and our focus was shifted


trying to get the spacecraft built and

tested correctly and staying on schedule

for the launch

because if you miss it you gotta wait

two years for these planetary launches

to mars

um and suddenly our whole focus had to

change to keeping the people safe and

keeping their family safe as a number

one priority

and i wasn't sure honestly i wasn't sure

we could do that i knew that if we

couldn't keep them

just as safe as they would be at home

doing other things that

you know that that could be that could

be it for us for this

for this opportunity we got tremendous


across the board from the institution

here at jpl

from headquarters thomas and and smd

and we got through it but um that was

the existential moment for me

that that very uh that that time

right there the first three to six weeks

um after after code would really hit


so anybody else same answer

yeah exactly same answers okay i'll add

to that

um one of the things about that's

interesting about this

this these jobs we have are we spend

years i mean seven or eight years for me


all these guys with years and years

years of work building

testing making sure it's going to work

and you know i have to say there's some

kind of stress

involved when you spend seven years of

your career doing something and

then it all comes down to like one

moment and for me it's obviously like

those first images that come from the


like you really want that to work like

really really want it to work and you've


everything you can do to make sure to

work and so um but you know

it's definitely you know we're we all we

try to be open-minded about what could

go wrong

uh we try to cover cover all our bases

and um

that's what's one of the great things

about jpl is that there's a

team of people here really smart people

uh you go to these reviews

uh to review your product your your


um we call them withering reviews you

get you get a lot of tough questions

but that's one of the really you know

jpl is a real gem of the place because

we built this culture of always

questioning um

what could go wrong um but hoping for

the best and

and it's it's a really interesting

experience i think we all share that

i will agree i think we invite the

feedback from

each other and our reviewers to make

sure that we are

thinking about all the things that we

need to think about and pushing

ourselves to

meet those challenges and uh and of

course you want it all to work but

um you know there are some things that

you know

you worry that you didn't think about um

but as a community and as a collective

and as

you know a team you know we use each

other to help

make sure that we're covering those


i mean the team really did persevere and

we are here today

uh up next is leo enright from irish


thanks very much raquel uh i i just


there's no doubt about it 12 year olds

definitely ask

the best questions but if you'll forgive

me for

um going geeky on this could somebody

talk to the traversibility of

canyon duchess now that you've seen

these amazing pictures

do you think that you can just simply

turn around the rover and head directly

west northwest

possibly right past the descent stage

or realistically are you going to have

to go to the northeast

um around olympic

and then to uh chaman foyer

i'm sorry for being geeky but it's kind

of a serious question

can you move quickly so i can uh i'll


and all that can comment also uh you

know we

have uh spent you know as we do in our

development program as we were


you know a lot of time in different

conditions to evaluate the performance

of our system

and one of the things that we did on

this mission compared to other missions

was to enhance

that traversability capability with


autonomous navigation and as well as


while we're driving so to increase our

drive rates

now we have many more images

and still to assess in terms of


our path forward but i will

let ken speak to maybe some of the areas

that we are interested in pursuing

and what's really great is that we work

together you know with the science and

engineering team

to evaluate those paths and

what sort of terrain is the best

for our system

yeah so it's a great question and it's

it's our major focus right now on the

science team is

is answering exactly that question uh

what are we going to do what do we want

to do

uh where do we want to go uh and i'll

say first of all we're

so extraordinarily happy about exactly

where we've put down

because we ended up right on this major

geologic feature this contact we call it

between two two differently mapped

units and so you see there's this sort

of um

uh undulating feature uh

that you know this sort of obvious line

um that we're landed right next to and

that's the big contact one of the major

features we were hoping to explore

in this mission and it it uh presents

for us uh one of the big mysteries uh i

mentioned the you know the possible


uh it gets down to one of the big

questions for us early on is what is

that crater floor

uh made of and are there igneous rocks


sedimentary rocks both uh you know

there's a lot of implications for both


so what i would say we're probably

currently leaning toward is

is exploring that contact which would

not lead us more i think to the second


of the two options but we'll see we

we've got a good amount of time

while the team does the commissioning

and checks all the systems out and

during that time we'll be

digesting all those new images and doing

a lot of strategic planning

evaluating different options um arguing

amongst ourselves

in the team right after this this uh

press conference is over our first

science team meeting

post landing starts immediately after

that so we'll

we'll start talking about just those

things so we'll see

okay thank you jessica and ken uh up

next we have stephen

gorman from reuters news

hi thank you very much can you hear me

okay yes we can

yeah so my question is i have like a

question about the superlatives

regarding the video footage of the edl


and the audio of that gust of wind that

was picked up on the martian service by

the by the microsoft so i believe

is it correct to say this this video

marks the first

sort of moving footage of a spacecraft

from a spacecraft from that thing uh

showing it's it's

it's uh descent and and landing on the

surface of another world

you know mars or any world i think right

i don't see that

including the moon or an asteroid or

anything and then secondly is this

likewise is this the first sound

recording ever made on mars

or any celestial object on earth or just

the first one that was made that's been

played back on earth i don't know if you


just clarify that

i can um let's see on your on your first


uh putting aside the apollo program and

the moon and just talking about planets

uh this is most certainly

i'm pretty sure as far as i know this is

the first time we're able to see


see our spacecraft land on another


and uh and hopefully that that answers

uh the question that you you asked um

as far as sound i'm not sure anybody

else has any more information but again

is to the best of my knowledge this is

the first

planetary sound that's been recorded

so yeah go ahead justin i can i can

i can add to that uh in terms of sound

the the

um the insight lander has a seismometer

on it and they did measure

uh seismic signals that were

acoustically driven

and then rendered that as as audio so

that that could be potentially

another another one but in terms of like

imaging and doing video

msl did have a descent imager that did


uh three and a half frames per second so

it was a little slower um that was the


instrument um we've also done time lapse

of deployments of things on inside you

know we deployed a seismometer and we do

time lapse

video mars pathfinder we did time lapse

video of

the rover driving down onto the surface

uh but then again it was it's time lapse

you know so seconds in between frames

so it you know it's you you've probably

seen this they're all out on the

internet the the

rover movies um i worked on that as a


actually but this is definitely the best


of any of them so i think we can at

least say that pretty definitively

it's it's just it's a whole nother level

of of capabilities that we now have so

great well that is all the time we have

for questions today

thank you so much to our panelists we


can't answer all the media questions on

there for those with additional


please call jpl's digital news and media


our social media team will continue to

answer questions online

and we have a reddit ama with

perseverance team members

starting at 1pm pacific time today

now to see the raw images of mars visit mars 2020

slash multimedia slash raw dash

images for more updates on the mission

visit perseverance and perseverance

and you can also follow us on social


using at nasa persevere i'm required

thanks for watching

i'm starting to straighten up and fly

right maneuver where the spacecraft will


the entry balance masses in preparation

for parachute deploy

and to roll over to give the radar a

better look at the ground

application shoot deploy

the navigation has confirmed that the

parachute has deployed and we are seeing

significant deceleration

in the velocity our current velocity is

450 meters per second at an altitude of

about 12 kilometers from the surface of


heat shields up press advance has now

slowed to subsonic

speeds and the heat shield has been

separated this allows

both the radar and the cameras to get

their first look at the surface

current velocity is 145 meters per

second and an altitude of about

10 km nine and a half kilometers above

the surface

now filter converge velocity solution

3.3 meters per second

altitude 7.4 kilometers now has radar

lock on the ground

current velocity is about 100 meters per


6.6 kilometers of the surface

first advance is continuing to descend

on the parachute

we are coming up on the initialization

of terrain relative navigation

and subsequently the priming of the

landing engines our current velocity is

about 90 meters per second at an

altitude of 4.2 kilometers

ovf valid we have confirmation that the

lander vision system has produced a

valid solution

and part of training relative navigation


is nominal we have timing of the landing


back shelf current velocity is 83 meters

per second

at about 2.6 kilometers from the surface


we have confirmation that the back shell

has separated we are currently

performing the divert maneuver

current velocity is about 75 meters per

second at an altitude

of about a kilometer off the surface of


here in safety bravo we have

completed our terrain relative

navigation current speed is about

30 meters per second altitude of about

300 meters

off the surface of mars

we have started our constant velocity

accordion which means we are

conducting the sky crane about to

conduct the flight crane maneuver

skytrain maneuver has started

about 20 meters off the surface

we're getting signals from mro

tango delta touchdown confirmed


faithfully on the surface of mars ready

to begin seeking the sands of past life




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